Area Database (v4.1)

Gross National Income per Capita (in 1000 US$ 2011 PPP)

Gross National Income per Capita (in 1000 US$ 2011 PPP).

For High Income Countries (HICs) and some Middle-Income Countries (MICs), subnational values of GNIc were based on data derived from national statistical offices and Eurostat. Data often deviated from the required definition in that GDPc instead of GNIc was available, that local currencies instead of 2011 US$ was used, and/or that no adjustment for PPPs was applied. The data was normalized on the basis of national GNIc values with the correct definition derived from UNDP.

For most Low-and Middle Income Countries (LMICs), data on standard of living were derived from the Global Data Lab Area Database. Given that household surveys and censuses for LMICs often do not contain information on income and, if they do, this information is not very reliable in poor areas, subnational values of GNIc were estimated based on household wealth. For this purpose, the International Wealth Index (IWI) was used, which measures household wealth on the basis of information on asset ownership, housing quality and access to public services. The IWI scale runs from 0 to 100, with 0 meaning ownership of none of the assets and bad quality housing and services and 100 indicating ownership of all assets and best quality housing and services.

To estimate GNIc for the subnational regions on the basis of IWI, a regression model was constructed that explained the variation in national GNIc derived from the UNDP database on the basis of national IWI scores derived from GDL-AD. On the basis of this prediction model, the subnational values of GNIc were estimated, which were further improved by scaling them on the basis of national GNIc values derived from the UNDP database.

To obtain the best possible estimate, the national values for the indicator from the UNDP-HDI database have been taken and the subnational values have been scaled in such a way that their population weighted mean for a given year equals the national UNDP value for that year.

For a complete list of sources and surveys used, please refer to the Area Database's Data Sources page.